Vision 2030 peace and security sector strategy:

By Lt Gen (Rtd) Denga Ndaitwah


STRATEGY Implementation: Strategy implementation implies putting the organisation’s chosen strategy into action. Strategy implementation includes designing the organisation’s structure, distributing resources, developing decision-making processes and directing human resources towards the set goals and objectives.

Strategy implementation is a stage that requires pragmatic actions as opposed to strategy formulation that only demands academic competencies and writing skills. It is at the implementation phase where a strategy can succeed or fail.

Strategy implementation is the translation of chosen strategies into organisational action so as to achieve strategic goals and objectives. Strategy implementation is also defined as the manner in which an organisation develops, utilises, and amalgamates organisational structure and control systems. Organisational structure allocates special value addition tasks and roles to its employees and states how these tasks and roles can be correlated so that it maximises efficiency and ensures quality competitive advantage.

Strategy implementation involves a number of steps which shall include developing the organisation’s potential to achieve a strategic set of goals and objectives. It is also at this stage that dedicated resources are allocated towards set goals and objectives. Strategy implementation demands the employment of enabling policies and finally, effective leadership is crucial if strategy is to achieve its perennial end-state.

Notably, strategy implementation is doomed to fail should there be no appropriate resources availed for the purpose. Equally important, strategy implementation shall fail should the strategic leadership fail to monitor and control the process towards its logical conclusion.   

It has been postulated that many organisations have failed to reach planned targets. Most of the failures are attributed to lack of strategic focus and strategic paths. In addition, high performing organisations tend to make more informed decisions because they have considered both the short-term and long-term consequences and would have aligned and oriented their strategies accordingly. In contrast, organisations that do not engage themselves in meaningful strategic planning are often bogged down by internal problems and lack of focus and this leads to failure.

While strategy formulation is of academic proficiency, strategy implementation is the actual realisation of a dream. It is at this stage of strategy implementation when shortfalls of resources that are needed will surface. Strategy implementation is basically an operational undertaking that aims at efficiency.

Strategy Evaluation: Strategy evaluation is the final step of the strategic management process. The key strategy evaluation activities are, appraising internal and external factors that are the root of current strategies, measuring performance, taking remedial and corrective action. Evaluation makes sure that the organisational strategy as well as its implementation meets the organisational goals and objectives.

Whilst strategy evaluation is regarded to be the last step of the strategic management process, it is a tool that must be applied during formulation and after implementation. Strategy evaluation must therefore, be considered as a thermometer that monitors the pulse of the organisation to see how the set goals and objectives are progressing.

Strategy evaluation is as significant as strategy formulation because it throws light on the efficiency and effectiveness of the comprehensive plans in achieving the desired results. Critical assessment on today’s dynamic world of socio-economic, political and technological innovations will therefore be required during the strategic evaluation.

The significance of strategy evaluation is to coordinate tasks to be performed within the organisation. It is during strategic evaluation where various factors are generated. The generated factors may include, developing input for new strategic planning, the need for feedback, appraisal, developing of the strategic management process and judging the validity of strategic choices.

The process of strategy evaluation involves the setting of the benchmarks, measuring of performance, analysing of variance and taking corrective action. It is also at this stage where emerging problems are identified, critically analysed,  ways and means are synchronised and aligned, aggressive persuasion of the goal and the full employment of all elements of national power.   

In the final analysis, every strategy is unique and so it must be tailor-made for a unique problem. Strategy is like a bundle of keys. They do not open any door if they are the wrong keys. The same is with strategy. Wrong strategy for a problem will not work and so the problem will not get solved.

In conclusion, it is suffice to say, the general framework of Vision 2030 is well crafted with its content appealing and appetising. Worth noting is, there was a time when this Vision was a national clarion call. Today, before the end of 30 years, that clarion call is waning from the scene.

With specific reference to peace and security sector as stipulated in this Vision, it is ambitious, full of wishful thinking, and limitless imaginations that are very difficult if not impossible to translate into action. I am therefore very pessimistic whether the goal of propelling the NDF to be on par with the best defence force in the region will be realised after 30years.

My concluding question is: Was the formulation of peace and security sector of this Vision realistic, flexible, measurable and driven by the strategic desire to achieve the ultimate national goal?

Lt Gen (Rtd) Denga Ndaitwah is a former Chief of the Defence Force, a holder of Master’s Degree in Strategic Studies, HOD and Senior Lecturer at IUM. Views expressed here are that of an author. Email: